IGCSE model questions 

Chapter 2                                  Breathing and Gas exchange       model Q pack 2

1.       What is cell respiration?

2.       What is ventilation?

3.       What is the difference between respiration and breathing?

4.       Draw and label human gas exchange system?

5.       How the surface of lungs sticking to the inside of chest wall is prevented?

6.       How does the airways kept clean?

7.       Show the respiratory path way in right order?

8.       Explain the term inhalation and exhalation?

9.       What happens in the respiratory system during the both above mentioned process? Or explain the role of intercostal muscles and diaphragm in ventilation?

10.   Briefly explain the gas exchange in alveoli?

11.   How alveoli are adopted for gas exchange?

12.   Design a simple experiment to investigate the effect of exercise on breathing in humans?

13.   Give a small experiment to compare the amount of Carbon dioxide in inhaled and exhaled air?

14.   What do you measure using a spirometer trace?


15.   Above mentioned diagram shows a spirometer reading; Define the following terms

16.   a). tidal volume b). Vital capacity

17.   How does the breathing rate controlled? Or How the CO2 and O2 in the blood are regulated?

18.   Write an essay on effect of smoking in the lungs and associated tissues? (should include bronchitis by smoking, Emphysema and lung cancer )

19.   Briefly, describe the effect of nicotine and Carbon monoxide in smoke? Or Explain the biological consequence of smoking on the lungs and the circulatory system?

20.   Regarding the functions of our respiratory system, mark the wrong try.
a. Humidifies the air
b. Warms up the air
c. Diffusion of gases
d. Cleans up the air

21.   A person suffers punctures in his chest cavity in an accident, without any damage to the lungs its effect could be
a. Reduced breathing rate
b. Rapid increase in breathing rate
c. No change in respiration
d. Cessation of breathing

22.   It is known that exposure to carbon monoxide is harmful to humans because
a. It reduces CO2 transport
b. It reduces O2 transport
c. It increases CO2 transport
d. It destroys hemoglobin

23.   Air in which part of the tube has high CO2 concentration?

a.       Tube A

b.       Tube B

c.       Tube C

d.       Tube A and C

24.   Mark the true statement among the following with reference to normal breathing
a. Inspiration is a passive process where as expiration is active
b. Inspiration is a active process where as expiration is passive
c. Inspiration and expiration are active processes
d. Inspiration and expiration are passive processes

25.   A person breathes in some volume of air by forced inspiration after having a forced expiration. This quantity of air
a. Total lung capacity
b. Tidal volume
c. Vital capacity
d. Inspiratory capacity

26.   Mark the correct pair of muscles involved in the normal breathing in humans
a. External and internal intercostal muscles
b. Diaphragm and abdominal muscles
c. Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
d. Diaphragm and internal intercostal muscles

27.    Incidence of Emphysema – a respiratory disorder is high in cigarette smokers. In such cases
a. The bronchioles are found damaged
b. The alveolar walls are found damaged
c. The plasma membrane is found damaged
d. The respiratory muscles are found damaged

28.   Respiratory process is regulated by certain specialized centres in the brain. One of the following listed centres can reduce the
inspiratory duration upon stimulation
a. Medullary inspiratory centre
b. Pneumotaxic centre
c. Apneustic centre
d. Chemosensitive centre

29.   CO2 dissociates from carbamino haemoglobin when
a. pCO2 is high & pO2 is low
b. pO2 is high and pCO2 is low
c. pCO2 and pO2 are equal
d. None of the above

30.    In breathing movements, air volume can be estimated by
a. Stethoscope
b. Hygrometer
c. Sphignomanometer
d. Spirometer

31.      Identify the correct and incorrect match about respiratory volume and capacities and mark the correct answer
i. Inspiratory capacity (IC) = Tidal Volume + Residual Volume
ii. Vital Capacity (VC) = Tidal Volume (TV) + Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) + Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV).
iii. Residual Volume (RV) = Vital Capacity (VC) – Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
iv. Tidal Volume (TV) = Inspiratory Capacity (IC) – Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Options:
a. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
b. (i) Incorrect, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
c. (i) Correct, (ii) Correct, (iii) Incorrect, (iv) Correct
d. (i) Correct, (ii) Incorrect, (iii) Correct, (iv) Incorrect

32.   n humans, incoming air is filtered, warmed, and humidified in the _____.

a.         alveoli

b.         bronchioles

c.         trachea

d.         larynx

e.         nasal cavity

a.       As an individual inhales air, the _____ is the last structure oxygen passes through before it arrives at the part of the respiratory system where it enters the circulation. Bronchiole

b.       larynx

c.       pharynx

d.       trachea

e.       bronchus

33.   In humans, what happens during inhalation?

a.       The diaphragm contracts and moves up.

b.       The diaphragm contracts and moves down.

c.       The diaphragm relaxes and moves down.

d.       The diaphragm relaxes and moves up.

e.       Rib muscles relax.

34.   Your breathing rate increases as, in your blood, your _____, which causes a _____ in pH.

a.       carbon dioxide levels increase … rise

b.       carbon dioxide levels increase … drop

c.       carbon dioxide levels decrease … rise

d.       carbon dioxide levels decrease … drop

e.       oxygen levels decrease … rise

35.   Which of the following statements is true regarding the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin?   

a.       Binding of oxygen increases in the presence of a high oxygen partial pressure.

b.       Binding of oxygen decreases in the presence of a high oxygen partial pressure.

c.       Binding of oxygen increases with increasing acidity at the tissue level.

d.       Binding of oxygen alters the partial pressures of gases and triggers the contraction of muscles in the thoracic cavity.

e.       Binding of oxygen increases as the pH of tissues decreases.

36.   As we breathe in, oxygen diffuses across the alveolus and into the blood plasma. What happens next?

a.       It combines with hemoglobin, decreases the pH, and thus stimulates the body to breathe.

b.       It passes into red blood cells, where eventually it can be used in cellular respiration.

c.       It is pumped through blood vessels to tissue capillaries where it then binds to hemoglobin.

d.       It diffuses through the capillary wall and then travels to the heart for transport to the body.

e.       It triggers the sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries to decrease the rate and depth of breathing.

37.   Through which structure(s) does the human fetus exchange respiratory gases?

a.       gills

b.       lungs

c.       skin

d.       placenta

e.       tracheal system

38.   What is pneumothorax?


39.   By looking at the diagram, explain how the pneumothorax is recovered?



According to the given table

a.       Why percentage of CO2 increased in exhaled air?

b.       What is the percentage of used oxygen in breathing?

c.       Why there is no change in percentage observed for nitrogen?



Chapter-3                           FOOD AND DIGESTION                                  Q.PACK-3

1.       What is a balanced diet?

2.       What are the types of carbohydrate? And what is the major role of carbohydrates in our body?

3.       What types of carbohydrate molecules are insoluble? And what is the benefit of that?

4.       What are the types of lipids? And where they found?

5.       What is the role of lipids in our body?

6.       What are the chemical building blocks of lipids?

7.       What do you know about saturated fat and unsaturated fat according to their chemical structure?

8.       Which one is healthier? And Where do you find them?

9.       What are the roles of protein in human body?

10.   What disease condition is common in case of protein deficiency?

11.   What do you mean by essential amino acids?

12.   List some essential minerals, give their role in our body and where can you find them in nature?

13.   What is mineral deficiency disease?

14.   What is rickets and anaemia And ingestion of which mineral could cure such conditions?

15.   Why vitamins are essential?

16.   Tabulate and show the use of following vitamins, effect of deficiency and foods which provides  them; vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, C, D ?

17.   Design simple tests to show the presence of following components a. starch b. glucose c. protein d. lipid

18.   What is the amount of energy found in a gram of following substances a. carbohydrates b. lipid c. protein?

19.   Why we need continuous supply of energy?

20.   What factors determines the energy need?

21.   Find the energy needed by a heavy manual worker per day (kJ)?

a.       2000  b.  10500 c.  15000 d.  11300

22.   Find the energy needed by a pregnant woman per day (kJ)?

a.       10000 b. 11000 c. 15000 d. 7500

  1. This is the job of the digestive system.



to give the body shape



to take in and break down food for use by the body



to take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide



  1. A long tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. 











  1. Stores the liver's digestive juices until they are needed by the intestines. 






gall bladder






  1. An organ that produces a bodily juice called bile.












  1. The place where digested molecules of food, water and minerals are absorbed.   



small intestine



large intesine






  1. This organ produces a digestive juice that contains a wide array of enzymes to break down fat, carbohydrate and protein in food. 









large intestine


  1. This part of the digestive system removes solid wastes such as feces from the body.  



large intestine



small intestine





  1. This organ stores swallowed food and liquid, mixes up digestive juices with the food and liquid and sends it to the small intestine.  



small intestine



large intestine






  1. Tiny fingerlike projections in the small intestine.












  1. This contains tiny glands that produce juices to digest food, found in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. 











  1. Composed of the teeth, tongue, salivary glands and muscles, this part takes in food to begin the process of digestion. 












  1. The final portion of the large intestine.












  1. The opening at the end of the digestive tract in which solid wastes are eliminated.












Use the following information and answer the questions


1 cm3 of water has a mass of 1 g

Water temperature at start was 25®C and at the end was 40®C

36.   Calculate the energy supplied to the water in the boiling tube in kJ?

37.   Which foods give the most energy per gram? Are they most rich in fat, carbohydrate, or protein? (Compare the examples such as meat, pasta, bread piece, rice grain)

38.   What is the name of the process in living organisms that releases energy from food?

39.   What is digestion?

40.   What is an enzyme?

41.   What is the main difference between chemical and mechanical digestion?

42.   Write the dentition of human teeth?

43.   What are the 2 sets of teeth mammal has during the life time?

44.   What is tooth decay?

45.   How does fluoride reduce the occurrence of periodontal disease?


a. Label the structures of the tooth given A-G?             b.  Label the type of teeth A-D?


47     What is peristalsis? And what are the 2 type of muscles take part on it?

48     List all possible examples of following 3 types of enzymesfrom gut carbohydrases, proteases, lipases And digestive action, source of enzyme and place of action? (tabulate)

49     What are the 2 main functions of hydrochloric acid?

50     Where bile is secreted? Stored? And where it passes down?

51     What are the 2 functions of bile?

52     Where does the pancreatic juice released in small intestine?


53     What are the significant roles of following parts?

a. Duodenum

b. Ileum

54     Briefly, explain how the ileum is adapted for the above-mentioned function?


55     Label the diagram 1-4?

56     What are the substances absorbed by 2 and 3?

57     What is the function of hepatic portal vein?

58     What is assimilation?

59     What is the first part of large intestine? What is the role it plays during the digestion?

60     What is the function of rectum and anus?

61     Design a simple experiment to show the effect of temperature and pH on a digestive enzyme?

62   Which of the following is NOT an accessory organ of the digestive system?
d.salivary glands

63   The major site for nutrient absorption is the __________.
small intestine
large intestine

64   The primary goal of digestive tract regulatory mechanisms is to optimize nutrient breakdown and absorption.

65   The serous membrane that covers the external surface of most digestive organs is called the __________.
parietal peritoneum
visceral peritoneum

66   _________ circulation collects nutrient-rich blood from the GI tract and delivers it to the liver.
Hepatic portal

67   main site of nutrient absorption

68   protective outermost layer of the alimentary canal

69   moderately dense connective tissue that has a rich supply of blood, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers

70   responsible for segmentation and peristalsis

71   Saliva contains enzymes that break down proteins.

72   The permanent dentition consists of __________ teeth in a full set.


73   A weak gastroesophageal sphincter can result in heartburn.

74   Which of the following is NOT a function of the stomach?

a.The stomach mechanically digests food.
b.The stomach produces intrinsic factor.
c.The stomach chemically digests lipids.
d.The stomach serves as a temporary holding area for ingested food.

75   The phases of gastric secretion from first to last are __________.

cephalic phase, gastric phase, intestinal phase
cephalic phase, intestinal phase, gastric phase
gastric phase, cephalic phase, intestinal phase
intestinal phase, gastric phase, cephalic phase

76   The increased concentration of HCO3- in blood draining from the stomach is called __________.

the enterogastric reflex
the gastric phase
the alkaline tide
the chloride shift

77   The __________ is the first segment of the small intestine.


78   Digestion of carbohydrates and proteins by brush border enzymes occurs within the ________ of the small intestine.

circular folds
goblet cells

79   Bile is stored and concentrated in the __________.


80   Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the liver?

It stores glucose.
It has a role in detoxifying the blood.
It is highly regenerative.
It has three lobes.

81   __________ is NOT found in pancreatic secretions.

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

82   Most digestion occurs in the small intestine.

83   Most water is absorbed in the __________.

large intestine
small intestine

84   Bacterial flora in the large intestine do NOT produce __________.

vitamin K
B vitamins
intrinsic factor

85   Diarrhea results when food passes too quickly through the large intestine.

86   List the correct sequence of the wall in the alimentary canal from deep to superficial.

87   ________ in the saliva works to begin the digestion of Carbohydrates.

88   The main or largest part of the stomach is the _____.

89   Inhibition of hydrochloric acid by the stomach could interfere with the digestion of which major nutrient?

90   The parietal cells within the gastric pits secrete____________

91   Gastrin functions to ______.

92   ________ and ________ in the small intestine stimulate the release of cholecystokinin.

93   ________ functions to cause pancreas to release bicarbonate ions to neutralize chyme pH.

94   _______,__________,_________ are protein- splitting enzymes found in pancreatic juice.

95   List four functions of the liver.

96   _________ is the only component of bile that has digestive function.

97   Major functions of the large intestine.

98   All enzymes involved in protein digestion are secreted in an ______ form.

99   Peristalsis in the digestive tract begin in the ______ and ends in the __________.

100Digestion of which of the major nutrient groups would be most affected if the liver were severely damaged.

101A hiatal hernia is due to a weakness in the ____.

102The main component of most gallstones is _________.

103The effect of the sympathetic nervous system on the alimentary canal ________ and the parasympathetic effect is ____________.

104A set of primary teeth contains ____, while a set of permanent teeth consists of ____ teeth.

105The ___________ serves as a valve between that controls the movement of food between the stomach and the duodenum.

106____ foods stay in the stomach the longest.

107The ________ reflex begins in the small intestine and ends in the stomach.

108The gallbladder is connected to the common bile duct by the ______ duct.

109The ______ is at the inferior end of the ascending colon.

110___________ help regulated the pH of saliva.

111The esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm called the ______________.

112Intrinsic factor is necessary for the normal absorption of ______ from the small intestine.

113The sphincter muscle located between the small intestine and the large intestine is the __________ _________.

114Pancreatic fluid contains a high concentration of ______ ____ which makes it alkaline.

115The process by which bile causes the breakdown of fat globules into small fat droplets is called ______.

116Food passing from the stomach through the small intestine would first pass into the duodenum, then the _____, and lastly the ______ before passing into the large intestine.



Chapter 4                             BLOOD AND CIRCULATION                    Q.PACK-4

  1. What are the roles of blood circulatory system?
  2. What are the two main reasons for a need of a circulatory system in humans?
  3. What is double circulatory system?
  4. Give the functions of the following

a.       Heart

b.      Arteries

c.       Veins

d.      Capillaries

e.      arterioles

  1. In this diagram of the human circulatory system, label the parts A to J with the following words:

aorta, right ventricle, left ventricle, pulmonary artery, left atrium, right atrium, pulmonary vein, superior vena cava, inferior venacava,pulmonarycircuit

  1. Briefly, give all events of the cardiac cycle?
  2. What are atrioventricular valves? Give their functions?
  3. What is mean by systole and diastole?


  1. Label and find what is described by the above diagram?                              Label 1-15 of human heart?
  2. Why the wall of 14. Is much thicker than the wall of 7?
  3. What is the specialty of cardiac muscle?
  4. What is coronary circulation?
  5. What is the normal heart rate in an average human being?
  6. What are the 2 circumstances that change the heart rate?
  7. Briefly explain the 2 mechanisms that controls the heart rate on the above mentioned circumstances?
  8. Give 2 arteries that do not carry oxygenated blood?
  9. Why the pulse can only be found in arteries but not in veins?
  10. How arteries differ from veins ?, reason?
  11. What is the function of watch-pocket valve?
  12. How does the tissue fluid forms?
  13. What is the function taking place within lymph nodes? How it helps to detect the infection?
  14. Write the functions done by the following
  1. plasma
  2. erythrocytes(RBC)
  3. white blood cells
  4. lymphocytes
  5. phagocytes
  6. platelets
  1. List the functions of blood plasma?
  2. Write short essay on the following
  1. red blood cells
  2. white blood cells
  3. platelets
  1. What are antigens?
  2. What is organ rejection in organ transplants?
  3. How do we overcome the organ rejection in organ transplants?, what is the drawback of it?
  4. What is tissue typing?
  5. How do we group the blood?
  6. What do you mean by the blood group of universal donor and universal accepter?
  7. What is coronary heart disease ?
  8. What is angina?
  9. List down the factors make coronary heart disease?
  10. What are the benefits of exercise?


  1. According to the graph what happens to the heart rate during last 5 minutes?How do we call that duration?
  1. Which is the smallest blood vessel?













  1. Which of the following component of blood engulf bacteria?

a.    Erythrocyte

b.    Platelets

c.    Lymphocytes

d.    Phagocytes


  1. Which of the following mineral is important  for heamoglobin

a.    Calcium

b.    Magnesium

c.    Iron

d.    Potassium








  1. The main function of valves within the circulatory system is to __________.



permit blood to circulate rapidly


prevent blood from moving in the wrong direction


prevent blood from moving too rapidly


stop the circulation whenever necessary









The most serious reason that aneurysms are dangerous is because they ___________.



cause the blood flow to be redirected


can burst, causing fatal blood loss


cause distention of the artery wall


can be repaired, but it takes surgery








  1. Which of these most correctly traces the path of blood from the heart to a kidney and back to the heart again?



Right atrium, aorta, renal artery, kidney, renal vein, inferior vena cava, left atrium


Left ventricle, aorta, renal artery, kidney, renal vein, inferior vena cava, right atrium


Left ventricle, inferior vena cava, renal vein, kidney, renal artery, aorta, right atrium


Left ventricle, renal artery, kidney, renal vein, inferior vena cava, right atrium





  1. Heart sounds result from ______.


flow of blood as it enters the heart


expansion and elastic recoil of arteries


contraction of the ventricles


closing of the heart valves








  1. Heart murmurs are usually caused by ___________________.



heart attacks


normal opening and closing of the valves


malfunctioning of the valves


swishing of blood past the valves








  1. What provides nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle?



blood flowing through the heart


branches from the pulmonary veins


capillaries from the mammary arteries


cardiac circulation








  1. If we had a two-chambered heart (one atrium, and one ventricle) with the vena cava entering the atrium and the aorta leaving the ventricle, which of the following would be true?



no oxygen would reach the cells


the blood would be unable to carry food to the cells


no blood would reach the head and neck


there would be no bodily circulation








  1. Which of the following statements is correct for a normal heartbeat?



At any given time, either the atria or ventricles are contracted.


Both atria and both ventricles contract simultaneously in one large surge.


At any given time, the atria, the ventricles, or neither may be contracted.


Both right chambers of the heart contract simultaneously in one large surge.








  1. The pacemaker of the heart is the __________.



SA node


AV node


Purkinje fibers


cardiac center




  1. Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80. What does the "120" represent?



The highest ideal arterial pressure for someone at rest


The lowest pressure in the arteries that will keep someone from fainting when they stand up


The pressure in the veins


The maximum pressure that can be sustained by the arteries before bursting








  1. Which of the following is the "silent killer" because it usually has no symptoms?







High blood pressure


High cholesterol

  1. Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for cardiovascular disease?



cigarette smoking


consumption of aspirin




elevated blood cholesterol


























 1.  Briefly define following terms

a.       Stimulus

b.       Response

c.        Receptor

d.       Effector

2.                 Show the sequence of above events in coordination?

3.                 Match the transducers(receptors) with relevant energy transduced

a. skin(pain/pressure/touch)________

b. eye _______________

c. ear(balance)___________

d. tongue___________

e. ear___________


g. Skin(temperature)______________

h. Muscle(stretch receptors)___________



4.        What are the 2 main components of central nervous system?

5.        Name the structure given bellow and label it?

6.        What is the role of A, B, D and E ?









7.        Label the eye?


8.        What is the function of 1-8?

9.        In dim light what type of cells work to produce vision?

10.     In bright light? What about the vision?

11.     In which place both of above mentioned cells are concentrated? And in which place they are absent?

12.     Why do we need 2 eyes?

13.     What is accommodation? , How it is achieved?

14.     What are the 2 main functions of an ear?


15.     Label 1-10 and give the functions of each?

16.     Where do you find the receptor cells? And what is the special structure where the receptors are located?

17.     What is the role of oval and round windows?


18.     What are the 3 main parts of the ear involved in the balance?

19.     Using the diagram explain how information about the position of head is obtained?

20.     What is a reflex action?

21.     When bright lights comes ‘iris pupil reflex protects the eye’ show the simplified diagram of reflex arc?







22.     Label 1-5 and A,B?

23.     What is found in A and B?

24.     How reflex actions help to prevent accidents?

25.     Show the route of knee-jerk reflex?

26.     How the message is transferred through synapse?

27.     What is the medical importance of synapses?


28.     What is the largest part of the brain and name the outer covering of it?

29.     What are the 3 main functions of above given (largest) part?

30.     What are the functions of cerebellum?

31.     Which part of the brain is known as brain stem? And what are the functions of it?

32.     What are the effects of stimulants in human body? How do they function?

33.     How the caffeine works?

34.     What is a depressant drug? Give example? What are the effects?

35.   .   The cells in our body that can be over a foot long are _____.


muscle cells


nerve cells


bone cells


blood cells

36.   Learning is related to ______________.









37  .   In reflex action, the reflex arc is formed by ____________.


muscles - receptor - brain


muscles - effector - brain


receptor - spinal cord - muscles


spinal cord - receptor - muscles

38.    The cerebellum is concerned with _______________.






coordination and precision




39.    Cerebral hemispheres are not the centre of __________.









40.    Junction of two neurons is called _____________.




end plate





41.    The CNS consists of _______________.




spinal cord


brain and spinal cord


brain, spinal cord and all the nerves

42.    Cerebrum is present in the _______________.


fore brain


mid brain


hind brain


partly in a and b each

43.   Cerebellum is situated in ___________.


fore brain


mid brain


hind brain


partly in a and b each

44.    Medulla oblongata is situated in ___________.


fore brain


mid brain


hind brain


partly in b and c each

45.   The grey matter consists of ___________.


nerve cells


nerve cell bodies


nerve cell bodies and dendrites


nerve cell bodies, dendrites and axons

46.    There are ___________ pairs of cranial nerves.









47.    A spinal nerve is a ________________ nerve.









48.    Afferent nerves are also called the _______________.


motor nerves


sensory nerves


mixed nerves


association nerves

49.    Efferent nerves are also called as _____________.


motor nerves


sensory nerves


mixed nerves


association nerves

50.    Ganglia are present in _______________.


the dorsal root of spinal cord


the ventral root of spinal cord


both a and b


neither a nor b

51.   The unit of the nervous system is _______________.









52.    The processes that conduct signals towards the nerve cell body are the ___________.








all the above

53.   The nodes of Ranvier are ________________.


covering of the nerve fibre


swelling along the nerve fibre


gaps in the cover of the nerve fibre


collection of nerves in the heart

54.    At the synapses, the impulses are always passed from the __________________.


axon to the dendrites


dendrites to the axon


either way is possible


cyton to the dendrites

55.    Unconditioned reflex is controlled by the ______________.




spinal cord


both a and b


the autonomic nervous system

56.    Blinking of eyes is a ________________.


reflex action


involuntary action


voluntary action only


can be a or b

57.    The outermost covering of the nerve is called the ________.






myelin sheath



58.    The box enclosing the brain is called the _____________.








vertebral column

 58. The kind of nerve carrying impulses from the brain to a gland or a muscle is called ______.








none of the above


59. The term “olfaction” explicitly refers to which sense?















60. What structure provides the boundary between the outer and middle ear?





Oval window






Tympanic membrane






61. What are the ossicles?



Small bones in the middle ear


Fluid-filled canals that extend into the cochlea


Cells in the olfactory bulb


Fine hairs on the basilar membrane








62. Where is the tectorial membrane found?





Middle ear


Inner ear


Outer ear


The brain (just above the cribiform plate)





63 . Rods and cones

 a) have different physical shapes 
 b) have different distributions across the retina (more cones in foveal region) 
 c) have different distributions across the retina (more rods in foveal region) 
 d) a and b 
 e) a and c

64.  A person suffering from short-sightedness has

 a) an eye that is too long and needs a convex lens to focus distant objects 
 b) an eye that is too long and needs a concave lens to focus distant objects 
 c) an eye that is too short and needs a convex lens to focus near objects 
 d) an eye that is too short and needs a concave lens to focus near objects 
 e) none of the above

65. In the figure of the human eye, which of the following labels are correct? 

 a) "A" is the blind spot 
 b) "B" is the pupil 
 c) "C" is the main refractive element 
 d) "D" is the fovea 
 e) all of the above

66. The reason we cannot see light that falls on the blind spot is

 a) photoreceptor cells in that region of the retina are light adapted 
 b) photoreceptor cells in that region of the retina are dark adapted 
 c) photoreceptor cells in that region of the retina are covered by blood vessels 
 d) the cortex suppresses vision in this area 
 e) none of the above

1.       What is an hormone?

2.       What are the main difference between endocrine gland and exocrine gland?

3.       What are the difference between Nervous system and Endocrine system?

4.       What is negative feedback?

5.       Give 4 hormones secreted by pituitary gland? give the functions of each?

6.       What are the hormones secreted by following glands? Give their functions?

a.       Thyroid

b.      Pancreas

c.       Adrenals

d.      Testes

e.      Ovaries

7.       Name the main endocrine glands given bellow?

8.       Draw the Thyroxine controlled metabolic rate negative feedback loop.?

9.       Give the changes occur in your body during fight or flight response of adrenaline?

10.   What is the advantage of glycogen as stored form of carbohydrate?

11.   What are the 2 hormones participate in hormonal control of glucose in name the type of cells where they are synthesized?

12.   Briefly, explain the process of controlling blood glucose?

13.   What is Diabetes?

14.   What are the symptoms of Diabetes?

15.   Why can’t we take insulin as orally as tablets?

16.   How the insulin for treatment; is produced?


a.       Explain why there is a rise in blood glucose level at 8 a.m?

b.      What is the hormone brings the blood glucose level back to normal between 8a.m -11a.m?

c.       What happens to the  blood glucose level during 4 p.m?

d.      What can you say about the activity of body during  that time?

e.      What is the hormone released during that time?

f.        What are the changes made by that hormone mentioned in e.?


a.What are the hormone responsible for stage 2 and 3?

b. What disease condition occurs if the hormone for stage 2 is not available in blood?

3.What are the symptoms of it(disease in b)?

4.Give 2 methods of monitoring blood glucose level ?

5. What are the 2 ways to control diabetes?


a.       What is the hormone to be given when the result is poor?

b.      Can we give that hormone as an oral tablet? Reason?

c.       How such hormones are produced for treatment?

d.      What are the symptoms of the disease?

e.      What is the alternative way to control diabetes?

20.  Which of the following best describes hormones? a). Hormones are relatively unstable and work only in the area adjacent to the gland that produced them. b). Hormones are stable, long-lasting chemicals released from glands. c). All hormones are lipid-soluble. d). Hormones are chemical messengers that are released into the blood from endocrine glands and function in different region

21.  . _________________ regulates the kidney’s retention of water. Its secretion is suppressed by alcohol.
a). Prolactin
b). Oxytocin
d). Vasopressin (ADH)

22.  Which of the following hormones is not released by the anterior pituitary?
a). melanocyte-stimulating hormone
b). gonadotropin-releasing hormone
c). thyroid-stimulating hormone
d). growth hormone

23.  ___________________ hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce several of its hormones.
a). Follicle-stimulating
b). Luteinizing
d). Growth

24.   Which of the following is MISMATCHED?
a. oxytocin -- hypothalamus
b. insulin -- pancreas
c. glucagon -- pancrease
d. thyroid hormone -- pituitary gland

25. During emergencies, the "fight-or-flight" response
a. decrease the heartrate
b. is caused by hormone secretions in the adrenal medulla
c. is stimulated by cortisol
d. is the result of aldosterone causing faster blood flow

26. The body's normal metabolic rate is regulated by
a. thyroid hormones
b. epinephrine
c. metaboloxin
d. prolactin

27. Excessive production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
a. is called hypothyroidism
b. can cause nervousness, irregular heartbeat, and weight loss
c. can cause stunted growth and retardation in children
d. can cause a goiter

28.Choose the pair of hormones that have agonistic effects on blood sugar levels:


 A) Calcitonin and PTH

      B) Adrenalin and Glucagon

 C) Glucagon and Glucose

 D) ADH and Aldosterone



29.Which hormone is produced in the Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans:


 A) Melatonin

 B) Glucagon

 C) Insulin

 D) Calcitonin


30.The hormone Progesterone causes what to occur in women?

 A) Follicle Development

                B) Development of the Uterine Lining

 C) Spermatogenesis

                D) Female Secondary Sex Characteristics

1.       What are the 2 types of sleleton?

2.       What are the components of each?

3.       What are the main functions of skeleton?

4.       What type of cells the bones are made up of?

5.       What are the constituents of following?

a.       Haversian system

b.      Bone matrix

c.       Cartilage

6.       Label the section of a long bone?

a.cartilage b.periosteum c.spongy bone d.compact bone e.bone marrow


7.       Name the vitamin needed for the absorption of calcium? And the disease in case of deficiency of that vitamin?

8.       What is osteoporosis?

9.       What are the main features of synovial joint?

10.   Label the following a. synovial membrane b.capsule c.synovial fluid d.ligament e. smooth articular cartilage f.capsule


11.   What are the 3 categories of joints? Give examples?

12.   Following diagrams are the examples of freely movable joints identify them and find functionally what type they are?



13.   Explain the following?

a.       Tendons

b.      Ligaments

c.       Antagonistic pair of muscles

14.   What does the voluntary muscle means? Give examples for voluntary and involuntary muscles?

15.   Identify biceps and triceps on the above diagram?

16.   What is the muscle responsible for bending spine side to side?

17.   Identify the relevant vertebra from following?

a.       Sacrum         b. Thoracic vertebra       c. Lumbar vertebra          D. Cervical vertebra


18.   List the changes occur in muscles during strenuous exercise?

19.   What is muscle tone? How the regular exercise helps to improve it?

20.   What type of nutrition is essential for muscles?




According to the graph find how long, each of 3 phases of the twitch response last?

  1. Match the following structures and functions.

   (a) Transmits pull of muscle to bone                               (i)   joint

   (b) Holds bones together at movable joint                    (ii)  synovial fluid  

   (c) Covers bone surfaces at a movable joint                  (iii) tendon    

   (d) Helps reduce friction in movable joint                     (iv) ligament

   (e) Contracts to produce movement                               (v)   cartilage

   (f) Region of contact between two bones                     (vi)  muscle

23. Find the suitable answer

1. The bones are held together at the joint by tough structures called –

a) Tendons      b) ligaments                 c) nerves          d)  muscles

2. At birth our body is made up of ----------- bones.

a) 206              b) 305                          c) 200              d) 300

3. A Skeletal System consists of ------------------

a)  Bones and muscles                         b)muscles and nerves

 c)bones and nerves                             d) Bones and cartilages

4. There are ---------------joints in our body.

a) 40                b) 35                            c) 22                d) 25

5. Muscles are attached to the bones by -----------------

a)  nerves         b) joints           c) tendons       d) cartilages

6. There are more than ---------------- muscles in our body.

a) 350              b) 300                          c) 360              d) 325

7. The number of bones in an adult skeleton are -----------

a) 200              b) 225                          c) 300              d) 206

ANSWERS: 1)B  2)D  3)D  4)C  5)C  6)A  7)D

8. Which of the following is made up of the vertebrae ?

a) Cartilage   b) backbone                   c) skull             d) rib cage

9.. The joint which allows the maximum movement is the -----------

a) Slightly moveable joint                   b)ball and socket joint 

c)hinge joint                                        d)pivot joint

10. This joint helps the bowler in the game of cricket ---------

a) Hinge joint                                      b) pivot joint   

c) ball and socket joint                        d) slightly movable joint

11. Synovial fluid is found in the ---------------

a) Muscles                                           b) freely movable joints

c) Slightly movable joints                   d) immovable joints

12. Dhoni tried to bend his elbow backward like how he could with his shoulder . He found he could not . This is because the elbow joint is made up of –

a)  pivot joint                                                   b) hinge joint    

c) ball and socket joint                                    d) fixed joint 

13. Sachin has fractured one of his bones in his rib cage . Which of the organs could be affected in the accident?

a) kidneys                    b) lungs             c) lungs and heart                  d)  heart alone

14. The muscles that support the beating of the heart are the –

a) Voluntary muscles b) cardiac muscles   c) involuntary  muscles  d) biceps and triceps

15. The joints between the gum and teeth are –

a) Fixed joints                          b) synovial joints   

c) cartilaginous joints              d) perfect joints

ANSWERS: 8.)B  9.)B  10)C  11)B  12)B  13)C  14)C  15)A

1.       What is homeostasis?

2.       Label the following diagram?


3.       What are the filtering functional units of kidneys?

4.       What are the substances filtered and not found in glomerular filtrate?

5.       Which part of the nephron the absorption of glucose occurs?

6.       Why does the flow rate is comparatively low at collecting duct?

7.       Label the components of nephron?

8.       Briefly, explain how the water content in body is being maintained and describe the role of ADH in that?

9.       What is oral rehydration therapy?

10.   What is the difficulty during kidney transplantation?, How it is solved?

11.   Briefly, explain the dialysis process?

12.   What is homoeothermic?

13.   Which part of the brain detects temperature changes in the environment?

14.   List the changes in your body when (answer should include sweat gland, vasodilation/contriction, heat generation in liver)

a.       Exposure to hot climate?

b.      Cold environment?

15.   What are the main roles of skin?

16.   Label the section of human skin?


Choose the suitable answer

17.   Reabsorption of useful substances from glomerular filtrate occurs in

(a)    collecting tube

(b)   loop of Henle

(c)    proximal convoluted tubule

(d)   distal convoluted tubule

18.   Brush border is characteristic of

(a)    neck of nephron

(b)   collecting tube

(c)    proximal convoluted tubule

(d)   all of the above.

19.   Under normal conditions which one is completely reabsorbed in the renal tubule?

(a)    urea

(b)   uric acid

(c)    salts

(d)   glucose.

20.   Glucose is taken back from glomerular filtrate through

(a)    active transport

(b)   passive transport

(c)    osmosis

(d)   diffusion.

21.   Which one of the four parts mentioned below does not constitute a part of single uriniferous tubule?

(a)    distal convoluted tubule

(b)   collecting duct

(c)    Bowman’s capsule

(d)   loop of Henle.

22.   The basic functional unit of human kidney is

(a)    nephridia

(b)   Henle’s loop

(c)    nephron

(d)   pyramid.

23.   A condition of failure of kidney to form urine is called

(a)    anuria

(b)   deamination

(c)    uremia

24.   (d ) none of these

25.   Concentration of urine depends upon which organ?

(a)    Bowman’s capsule

(b)   length of Henle’s loop

(c)    P.C.T.

(d)   network of capillaries arising from glomerulus.

26.   A person who is on a long hunger strike and is surviving only on water, will have

(a)    less amino acids in his urine

(b)   more glucose in his blood

(c)    less urea in his urine

(d)   more sodium in his urine.

27.   In human being body temperature is regulated by a part of brain; the
a. Thalamus
b. Hypothalamus
c. Medulla oblongata
d. Cerebellum


28.   From the list below, select the most appropriate words or phrases to complete the

following sentences.

   (a) Our skin protects us against …..(A) …..and …..(B)…..

   (b) Our skin helps to control ….. (C) ….. and …..(D) …..

       touch and pressure, ultraviolet light, bacteria, evaporation of water, heat from the sun, body     



29.   What are the main functions of (a) the basal (Malpighian) layer, (b) the cornified layer of the skin?


30.   Make a list of the structures you would expect to find in the dermis.

(a) What is 'vaso-constriction'?

   (b) What are the effects of vaso-constriction in the skin?


31.   Why should shivering contribute to heat gain in the body?


(a)    What is meant by 'vaso-dilation'?

(b)   What are the effects of vaso-dilation in the skin?


33.   Sweating, by itself, will not cool the body. What has to happen to sweat if it is to have a

cooling effect?


34.   What do you understand by the term hypothermia?


35.   Which of the following substances would you not normally expect to find in a sample of urine?

   (a) uric acid, (b) ammonia, (c) glucose, (d) sodium chloride, (e) urea.


36.   Blood in the renal vein differs from that in the renal artery by having

   (a) less oxygen, more carbon dioxide and less urea

   (b) more oxygen, 'more carbon dioxide and less urea

   (c) less oxygen, less carbon dioxide and less urea

   (d) less oxygen, more carbon dioxide and more urea,


37.   In a dialysis machine, which one of the following combination of substances is allowed to escape from the patient's blood into the bathing solution?

   (a) Salts, water and glucose.

   (b) Salts, urea and glucose.

   (c) Water, urea and uric acid.

   (d) Water, uric acid and glucose.


38.   State two procedures which are used to reduce the chances of a kidney graft being rejected.


39.   Make a table to show three organs which have a homeostatic function and in each case

Indicate two of the substances whose concentration they control.  















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